Your present location:Home >> Scholarly Publishing >> History of abstract art and abstract theoretical understanding of China

History of abstract art and abstract theoretical understanding of China

Date:4/25/2016 07:18:26 PM

Early in the 1920s and 1930s, abstract art will be introduced to China, "said Xu two," Xu Beihong and Xu dispute is whether China should accept the influence of Western art modernist art and controversy, this time the West modernism has been included in various schools and associated abstract expressionism and other schools. Although thirties Shanghai and other places of learning and attention of many artists of different schools of Western modernism, abstract art but did not receive special attention, especially after the Sino-Japanese War began, the situation is even more unfavorable to the development of abstract art.

Fine tone after the founding of Xu Beihong is advocated combining French school of the Soviet model of education and the development of a realist-based, absorbed the traditional Chinese art impressionistic style, supplemented by policy decisions. Learning Western Modernist artists of various genres most had to make a fresh start, a fresh start. Abstract expressionism based new round of attacks on the Chinese artists chose the creative path of abstract art. But the new era of Chinese abstract art system does not build up, although the number of artists engaged in more and more abstract art, abstract art but has never become the mainstream of Chinese art, which is composed of a variety of reasons of the decision. So, the future Chinese abstract art is what, can build their own system, among the Chinese mainstream art?

First, the Chinese art of cycle theory

Art style with periodic discussions focused also is a hot topic in the West have the relevant conclusions, China also has a related argument, the author confirmed by data analysis arts evolving art history has its cyclical changes, but China and West period is not the same, the change interval is also different, this is due to geographical, ethnic, political, economic and cultural and other factors, it also related to the law of development and art itself. Artistic development is impossible in a vacuum.

Chinese art cycle is described: Chinese art is the imagery of art-based art, but sometimes more emphasis on figurative, and adjacent upper and lower two periods is more focused on abstract and absolute abstract art and figurative art China's own culture does not cultivate the soil out, the reason is due to the mildness of this nation and culture espoused "Mean" concept caused. Specific argument separate article discussed here only to talk about the cultural background of abstract art is difficult to constitute a reason for Chinese system. Art style change is mainly as the impact of changes in the acceleration of economic, political and cultural factors.

Although the ancient Chinese art of abstract patterns distinctive pottery, bronzes and other arts and crafts patterns abstract decorative patterns, but from the name to the cultural interpretation of specific things are derived from normative convention, rather than a unique artist Schema. It can only be counted as the Image Art abstract emphasis on the performance characteristics, and not as a source of abstract art, it is true we do not deny that they have great reference value for future generations in terms of abstract art. Interpretation of the abstract patterns of unique, although some meaning in history has been frustrated, but it does not have a unique password for artists emotion analysis nor on individual differences, their performance is still an aesthetic authenticity.

Primitive art figurative and abstract bud two art forms in China also exists, but not in the subsequent history of development and improvement, and this fusion of Chinese heavy, light analysis, heavy middle, light paranoid Cultural Psychology inseparable of. "Heaven" concept as the foundation of Chinese culture can best illustrate this problem. "Heaven," emphasized the relationship between the three layers, the three layers are stress harmonious relationship, approach is "impartial, whichever road." Including people's own harmony and inner, outer clothing and etiquette as well as inside and outside and "Slim" concept of Confucian and Buddhist Taoist view of nature "no ego" is stressed from different angles. Harmony between man and society is the second layer, which is also reflected in all aspects of Chinese culture, the Confucian emphasis on "family, country and the world" the most typical, the most depth of the relationship between man and nature is the Taoist concept of "road Natural law "as the classic assertion. "I am one with nature," the idea is not only the most importance to Taoism, Chinese culture, one of the other schools are regarded as its base, way its implementation is the "golden mean", or "middle way" and called "not partial and impartial, "" too far "and so on, Chinese Buddhism is the choice of the cultural foundation of the associated" meso "theory, stressed" there is nothing more than non, also no "get rid of the" ego "reached an epiphany.

Development of Chinese art history can be simply described as follows: original art imagery, figurative, abstract three kinds of art forms in its infancy, according to regional differences, different emphases. Eventually Imagery Art based, the other two art forms into a vassal suppressed. Qin abstract art with emphasis on the main features of the Image Art of worship is heavy witch customs related, through the "Ceremony Disintegration" Spring and Autumn Period, the Qin Shi Huang to show their strong force, chose emphasis realistic figurative style Images of art, only to grow the size terracotta warriors and horses. This style continued until the Han Dynasty period, due to the theology of Confucianism become "official science", so the atmosphere is one of the art turn into abstract imagery emphasis on the arts. Buddhism flourished Southern and Northern Dynasties, a large number of Buddhist statues appear to drive the prosperity of art, then art was influenced by foreign, although focusing on the image of realism, but the purpose is to emphasize the expressive realism, in short, is the emphasis on figurative imagery of art accounted for the mainstream. Sui and Tang dynasties emphasize both form and spirit, diverse artistic styles, imagery art itself has been greatly developed, before focusing on figurative Tang, Tang after the start of the emphasis on abstraction. Five Dynasties, Southern Tang and West Sichuan Art Academy have emerged, serving the court Painting weight figurative imagery of art, he has been true to the Qing Dynasty, which is about the art of political interference. But for the mainstream art world in terms of landscape and bird flourished also stimulated the development of abstract imagery emphasis on art. Since five generations until Ancestor period, drawings tendency painting has emerged, which will have beneficial abstract imagery of art into the mainstream, literati painting theory emphasizes the expression of the artist inner spirit is even more subversive figurative imagery of art from public opinion authority.

Although it extended until mid-Southern Song Dynasty so abstract imagery of art into the mainstream, but also can not ignore the importance of the Northern Song Dynasty painting theory, and this was the rise of Neo and not unrelated. Yuan career path was blocked causing conscious literati in the court, as Chao, et al position to officials, is living in Han Cao Ying heart, so Yuan paintings emphasize the artist's personal feelings, in general, is the emphasis on abstract imagery art. Song stressed that school early Ming, also stressed that painting, so the artistic style and turned heavy concrete, after the rise of Wu School, style and one of the turn. Late Ming Xin Xue flourished, painting is more emphasis on respect for the art of abstract imagery. Early Qing "Four King", "Four Monks" coexist, although its artistic style and artistic ideas are different, but all of Dong Qichang schema theory about, "found the best Qifeng scratch" behavior does not change the focus on the heart performance the purpose of this period continued the focus on the art of abstract imagery. Mid-Qing Dynasty, especially after the Opium War, China's artistic development impact of external forces, artistic select more influenced by political aspects, artistic experimental reform began. West different artistic genres and artistic ideas rushed into China, the Chinese art genre and its exchange to generate new debate. But the needs of the war eventually make art to emphasis on realistic images of art, and further subvert the Chinese art of its own law of development, make images of art gives way figurative art, which requires not only political, but also with culture change related. With the weakening of external forces, return to the art of its own development road up, China is still dominated art imagery mode. So after the realistic figurative art debilitating same foreign abstract art can become mainstream it? If there is no political influence of external forces in my opinion it is impossible.

Second, the choice after impact

Ocean Civilization traditional Western culture is emphasizing its focus on analysis of extreme seek only truth; civilization is the traditional mainland Eastern culture emphasizes comprehensive, intuitive perception of truth is the best way to fit. The gap between the two is obvious. Abstract art produced in the West has its cultural background. After focusing on realistic figurative tradition in Western art it is also influenced by oriental art began to explore new, but the cultural differences can only make Western art selection fit their own cultural roots artistic mode. Fantasy from the Baroque and Rococo style oriental art after Impressionism Van Gogh, Gauguin and Cezanne and others for learning and oriental paintings depict, eventually led to the emergence of abstraction is the negation of all image.

Abstract art as a genre of art produced in the early twentieth century, also known as "abstract", "abstract", "No object art" name, mainly in painting, sculpture art, there are representatives of Russia Kandinsky, Malevich and Mondrian Netherlands and so on. They believe that art is a "self from the field, and their role is only ruled on its own laws," feelings as the most appropriate form of expression is "no images" of. Form factor is independent existence, it is only their own value. Artistic expression "spiritual reality", "higher reality." Art is like music, colors and other styling tools like sound. Music conveys emotions are abstract paintings convey the mood is abstract. Abstract art is divided into two major tributaries, an intellectual abstraction or abstract logic, also known as "cold" abstraction, one for emotional abstraction, also known as "hot" abstract. The former geometry to represent by the latter without hesitation emotive painting with color, line, composition, etc. to express feelings directly. Abstract art interested in finding inspiration and creativity in the abstract world, that the value of art is abstract beauty, art can only express their feelings and emotions, and the contents of the back seat. Abstract art and expressionism, supremacy, constituted schools have ambiguous relations doctrine, De Stijl, etc., on some level these genres can be seen as a branch of abstract art, abstract art its style, its leading figures identity also illustrates this point.

Abstract art is representative of the World War II American abstract expressionism, abstract expressionism as a movement in art not only in the last turn of the 1940s and 1950s began painting popular in the United States, and the United States to become the representative of Western modern art modern art . Artistic Pursuit of Abstract Expressionism Van Gogh inherited since the abstraction of direct and explore other aspects of automation and self-expression of the subconscious. Abstract Expressionism representatives are Pollock, Klein Kooning and Mark Rothko and the like.

Abstract Expressionism performance since World War II the United States state of mind, in high spirits after the appearance of the intelligentsia in some manic highly industrialized society, anxiety and feelings of anxiety. Following the Abstract Expressionist generation of "post-painterly abstraction" in the sixties has become a movement in art. Group of abstract expressionist painter with brush strokes, color and texture effects to express subjective feelings of opposition, advocated clear abstract form (clear outline of abstract shapes, smooth surface large color) instead. This new abstract art form is also known as "color face painting," "hard-edge abstraction" has been extended to abstract seventies called "little school". New forms of geometric abstraction after the Abstract Expressionist paintings of abstract thoughts that appear, indicating that American art from an emphasis on subjective feelings into focus on objective performance.

Abstract art painting twice the impact of China, including the Western abstract art and realism of modern art academic art has its own characteristics, history in the last century thirties chose the realistic figurative art only realistic art was more in line with the political situation in China It needs. When the first wave of China is in a period of struggle the poor and weak, from the heavenly kingdom found themselves waking up is already dangerous, but do not know how to change, it is one kind of humble attitude to learn. Just do not know in the end the choice should bring what artistic reform also facing this problem. Gunfire broke the war debate, realistic practicality make it popular, so after the founding of the mainstream Chinese art, and other art forms of the special period excluded.

Although there are many factors peasant painting Chinese local aesthetic, but its purpose is to achieve some kind of realistic effects, as the level of the problem ultimately not fully realistic, this is an inevitable process. Absurd plot on the whole mess in the world is rational, and thus also be seen as the plot is ideal reasonable. Although many academic artists were exiled to the bullpen, but was pulled out from time to time or teach painting posters "Qing Bai Zaidi" painting, art institutions does not mean that it closed a realistic standard to be broken.

Third, the rebel king

After entering the Chinese art of the eighties, although still based on academic education model developed by Xu Beihong to strengthen education, but artists have been under the impact of Western thought and literary works began to find its way up. Choose a Western artist or a genre of art imitate learning have, return to explore traditional Chinese art also has, in short, realism can not dominate the world.

"Scar art" and "local realism" is still in the creation of realistic standards of conduct. There has been discussion of the relationship between painting and formal beauty of form and content issues 1979-1983 period. Fuse is May 1979 "Art" magazine published Wu Guanzhong's article "painting beauty of form." This essay style articles with clearly stated that the painting should be bold to pursue the idea of ​​form, which in the early ideological liberation movement, there is a role for the artistic creation of intellectual enlightenment. Wu stressed that style is valuable, but also referred to the manner bound and can not create new habitats are insurmountable problems in the article. Article caused great repercussions in the fine arts. In this little theory of color paper, the authors propose a form of painting, abstract, aesthetics and content issues their views, to spark discussion of the fine arts, to promote artistic turning point, which is unprecedented. Further Wu and a number of artists in the creation of the painting began a language purified attempt. But the road onto the abstract but a few, which is closely related to their education suffered.

With the growing prosperity of the oil painting "Oil Painting" Following the discussion of the issue in 1979 and 1950 it will be raised again. Overall Chinese art of this period is not so much out of political control to achieve the freedom of creation, as it is outside the control of the political disappearance of Chinese painting in two directions, "scar art" and " native realism "is the emergence of political inertia of art to prove at this point in Chinese oil painting. Choose form of expression is still follow the principles of realism. "Formal beauty" and "Oil Painting" discussion makes self-awareness of Chinese art manifested in the heated debate. Art at this stage there is a tendency mainly under the impact of individual independence ideology.

Around 1985, a large number of young people in the arts community across the country set up a group of hundreds of modern art, which is the reflection for the local art local artists encountered in Western Modernist philosophy and art after the impact. The creation of the emergence of new themes, mostly related to life, consciousness, reason and the human condition related. "The individual consciousness" and "modern consciousness" is the main aspect of the artists emphasize, which is Chinese contemporary oil painting opportunity to truly independent. 1985 "Huangshan conference" and "advancing the Chinese Youth Art Exhibition" is the Chinese art of "Concept" pushed to the peak, attention to express the artist inner feelings and understanding of the concept and means the world to become the premise of oil paintings.

85 New Wave movement occurs mainly due to under modern Western philosophy and art influences and impacts arise. At the same time period, "Chinese Art News" and "Fine Arts" magazine after another, as critics, artists offer a new arena. "Chinese Art News" launched during this period a large number of articles of great significance, reflecting the ideological concept of artists and artistic tendencies. "Art" and "discover Jiangsu" in the same year also contributed to the revision of the "New Wave" movement. Introduces modern Western art theory article "World Art" and "Art Renditions" for improving the critic, the artist's theoretical level and expand its horizons played an important role in providing the theoretical groundwork for artists and art transformation and breakthrough counseling. `85 trendy make this small piece of oil painting art world there is such a quantity, so the level of work is unimaginable, Academy of Fine Arts received training, but also to accept the influence of modern Western art artists more of those taking a more abstract and conceptual manner, all the artists of this period are like thinker, philosopher. Reflection and reproduced the phenomenon of human existence so that their creation appear a peak.

"Rational painting" and "Stream of Life" constitutes the main features of `85 New Wave Movement Chinese art. "Rational painting" the artist emphasizes their work is load their connotation and cultural awareness carriers, particularly for society, of life and attention to culture, which led them to focus on their thinking even more than the concern manifestations of their work . In Wang Guangyi, Shu Qun and Ren Jian represented "North Art Group" clear theory of color in painting `85 New Wave Movement has. In fact, such a rational wind starting to "advance the China Youth Art Exhibition." "Stream of Life" is a painting and "rational painting" Almost simultaneously, the artist who works not emphasize rational, they pay more attention to the experience of life, they tried to experience the presence of the deep structure of human perception and the reality of life. Overall, the "Stream of Life" artists and "rational painting" artist artistic body concept is the same. They are concerned about the "human nature", "Life" and other Philosophical issues. Painting as their performance will be thinking carrier. Both paintings trend in 1985 and 1986 is the mainstream of Chinese contemporary art development.

1989 is a big parade Chinese modern art. In February, the China Art Museum "Chinese Modern Art Exhibition" (also known as the "Modern Art retrospective") exhibited hundreds of representatives from across the country 186 trendy artists. "Chinese Art News" report, wrote: "In all the exhibition hall floor in the East Room, the 2nd and 3rd floor of the Art Museum of China held a total area of ​​2200 square meters ...... First, the device behavior and the Pope. Art exhibition hall on the first, want a strong visual stimulation, to the impact of conventional art forms to aesthetic inert audience. Second, in the second floor hall emphasizes a noble religious atmosphere, whether in calm contemplation, or in desperate torment, a certain mentality are persistent faith. this is in 1985 there has been a trend of thought. Third, the tendency to focus on the absurd, irrational focus on a hall, emphasizing the 'cold'. Fourth, with particular emphasis on the second floor 'hot 'whether it is the suffering of anger, or love life flow warmth, emotional expression is the most prominent feature. five, anti-trendy momentum malpractice `85 to purify the language most representative. including ink language search, We are on the 3rd floor. "the large gathering in the trendy art gunfire drew the curtain for the Chinese New Wave.

After 1989, Chinese modern art to silence, which is evidence of the political influence of art. *** Until after 1992 southern tour, Chinese art has a new turn, "after the` 89 New Chinese Art "slogan was put forward, during this period there have been a number of new works is different from the 1980s. In Europe and the United States and traveling exhibitions in Hong Kong and Taiwan, "after the` 89 China New Art "completely pure another attitude to participate in international dialogue among and with" China Image "and" Chinese words "produced in the world a greater impact. The Chinese art of showing their own characteristics are the "Political Pop" and "Cynical Realism" two artistic trends.

"Gaudy Art" following the "Political Pop" and "Cynical Realism" has become another trend of Chinese contemporary art. After the phenomenon as an art popular "Gaudy Art" was held in Beijing in May 1996, "Volkswagen model" and "Gaudy Life" These two exhibitions in China popular. This is the 1990s, after the grafting of Western contemporary art event of the "Chinese meaning." "Gaudy Art" is a direct reflection of the artist in the 1990s Chinese society presents a mass culture, business culture and consumer culture made in the sense that it is with the West take the same path.

Late, after the new generation of contemporary life and the status of the city to make the 1990s a new generation of artists to reflect different is called "epigenetic generation", and they "Gaudy Art" Artists trend started almost simultaneously. They look at reality and the way society has its own unique characteristics, they do not have the heavy burden and responsibility, their own way of life, between themselves and the public to find their own unique language. At the same time the most sound, Liang Jianbin, Tian quicksand, Jiang Heng Huang Yihan, who has been called the "Cartoon Generation", although the "epigenetic generation" are not engaged in "cartoon generation" of creation, but because they were using commercial culture, mass and popular culture has a similar choice when, that is, the characteristics of the virtual future to express their concerns and thinking. With the "Cartoon Generation" to locate there is a serious error, even though China pay more attention to the art of this period show the artist and unique expressive language personal life, but not all of the stakeholders to pull the cartoon.

In front of a list of many of the last century occurred artistic genres, just to illustrate despite academic education remains the structural form, figurative realism, plot narrative process of maintaining the legalization of Arts Education, but the artistic mainstream is already a few overturned child several of the courtiers. However, since the nineties different artistic mainstream "image" type and does not accept abstract art, abstract art when rebels despite having dominance as realistic spared no effort. Abstract art again in the new era into China, its adherents did not make it in the formation of Chinese system. Trendy period, abstract art as a form of expression exists in the mainstream or non-mainstream art, and into the nineties after the Image mode again rise so completely between abstract art with "other like realism and image schema outside . "

Fourth, change the status of marginalized

Marginalized abstract art on the one hand due to the influence of external factors and select the external environment, partly because of its own characteristics caused. Abstract art whether and emphasizes the "cold" or emphasize the color "hot" are the subject of the artist in the first place. After publishing a work of art will be handed over to the three evaluation system to evaluate the general audience, academia and the art market. Close ties between the three evaluation system, both its internal law but also the impact of external human factors. No fixed sequence between the three requirements, but in order to facilitate the description, it just uses a narrative way.

After the emergence of a work of art if the audience attention, whether positive or negative, will inevitably lead to the evaluation of academic critics, build academic evaluation system to guide the market and then choose the interests of the market and guide the audience to expel a new round of attention. Such a situation is created in the art sound system environment, but now China is not yet fully established a reasonable mechanism Art. Issues single, independent identity without critics, flamboyant art market, the lack of legal and media arts limitations audience aesthetic ability is limited, aesthetic standards and other constraints of the Chinese art of self-improvement system. Economic and political factors remain as large as possible about the development of Chinese Art.

Such an environment is not conducive to the formation of abstract art in China, impetuous in the present social environment, stick to their own artistic path requires great courage. Main focus on the artist's abstract art under the premise of no concern to get the audience to understand and become the mainstream of art is impossible. So, abstract art status in China on marginalized seems reasonable, but is really reasonable? A people's aesthetic habits are trained, China single "scientific truth" mode restricts the aesthetic education of ordinary people development, with the only criterion as the standard, which is a sad Chinese education. Image Works has been able to break the shackles of this is due to the recovery of national aesthetic psychology of assimilation and cultural backgrounds, abstract works of art on its lack of a strong backing support. Chinese original Art soil does not specifically provide any nutrients to abstract art, abstract art system to build China remains to be new factors emerge.

The twenty-first century literary arts affected to a certain style to define the rise of a generation of artistic culture of choice, what "Cartoon Generation", "jelly era" was appeared, this definition is entirely man-made actions factors play a role. Language is not only the young age of this opposition within this formulation, a number of different views of the critics are also involved in the discussion. "Symbolic abstraction" as an artistic style has been raised. Whether it is to demonize the image or beautify images even demonized image, they are certain narrative contains images of art, even though they are against the mainstream of figurative realism showed great vitality, but when it when that kind of image or symbol of the market price, the value of art itself will be dispelled.

? Against the "image" type of art do we have a new round of fighting to lift it first issued as realistic art, figurative realistic art has always existed, but is in a relatively minor position, their combat effectiveness is inadequate; Secondly, law of art itself is increasing its role when the position of the mainstream art images will become increasingly consolidated. So, to have enough strength to resist "image" type of art imagery only art itself. "Image type" art is the emphasis on figurative imagery of art, appears next round should be focused on abstract art of imagery. Abstract art in this process is bound to play an important role.

Abstract art on itself, forming a crucial own system. Well, today's China there is no such condition ready for it? Yes. First, abstract art has been in the field of applied art, which has been widely used in all aspects of architectural design, costume design, packaging design, and has been recognized by the audience. Second, in the pure art of the artist experienced a long period of exploration, began to oriental thinking into abstract art creation, and have a certain effect. Again, some critics have criticized the efforts to build a system of Chinese abstract art. Meanwhile, the abstract works of art in the art market has also been some recognition. Therefore, China is not a myth mature abstract art, but also in terms of time needed for a longer period of time, at least five decades. So abstract art can become the next king of Chinese art? I believe that is impossible. Abstract art and figurative art, artistic images is possible in China's development model will become the three pillars, if not the external factors are still the Image Art of the main changes in style but more emphasis on figurative or abstract only.

in conclusion

Greenberg think abstract art is not only an elitist art, and is the highest stage of modern art, I do not agree with this view, no matter what kind of art has its own value, good or bad does not exist. New Era of Chinese abstract art even after three decades of development, the pursuit of aesthetic and artistic practices and other aspects of many achievements, but China has not in terms of abstract art from an academic formation system, which is subordinate to the various art periods . Chinese abstract art in the future be able to establish their own system, but it still takes a long time, about five years. Abstract art does not become the mainstream of Chinese art, but images can be art, figurative art form the three pillars of the pattern, and not under the influence of external factors to the image of the main return to Chinese art in a given cycle.



TypeInfo: Scholarly Publishing

Keywords for the information:

  • © 2016 polyartmuseum
    Power 京ICP备:13044826